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浙外艺术学院2011级学生工作博客

美是艺术的目的和推动力。(俄国)冈察洛夫

 
 
 

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历史悠久的国画 Traditional Chinese Painting  

2013-10-27 17:20:26|  分类: 艺术 Elegance |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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历史悠久的国画 Traditional Chinese Painting

国画,又称“中国画”,我国传统绘画,国画在内容和艺术创作上,反映了中华民族的民族意识和审美情趣,体现了古人对自然、社会及与之相关联的政治、哲学、宗教、道德、文艺等方面的认识。国画强调“外师造化,中得心源”,融化物我,创制意境,要求“意存笔先,画尽意在”,达到以形写神,形神兼备,气韵生动。
Traditional Chinese painting, also known as "Chinese painting," reflects China's national consciousness and her aesthetic disposition and inclination. It demonstrates the understandings of China's ancient people about nature, society, and other associated social aspects, such as politics, philosophy, religion, morality, and art. Traditional Chinese painting places emphasis on "learning outwardly from nature, gaining inwardly in the heart," harmonizing the outer/nature and inner/heart to create artistic conception. It requires that "the composition is already conceived before one starts to paint, and the finished work depicts the precise aspiration of the artist." Its goal is to depict spiritual character through physical form, having both form and spirit as well as vivid spiritual resonance. 
 

中国画历史悠久,远在2000多年前的战国时期就出现了画在丝织品上的绘画——帛画,这之前又有原始岩画和彩陶画。这些早期绘画奠定了后世中国画以线为主要造型手段的基础。两汉和魏晋南北朝时期,社会由稳定统一到分裂的急剧变化,域外文化的输入与本土文化所产生的撞击及融合,使这时的绘画形成以宗教绘画为主的局面,描绘本土历史人物、取材文学作品亦占一定比例,山水画、花鸟画亦在此时萌发。
Chinese painting has a long history; as far back as the Warring States period of over 2000 years ago, people painted on silk. This is known as silk painting. Before then, there were also primitive forms of rock painting and pottery painting. These early paintings laid a good foundation for the development of Chinese painting, which used line as the primary means of composition. By the Han and Wei dynasties, social stability and unity took a dramatic turn towards division; the impact of the collision between extraterritorial culture and local culture, and their eventual combination, gave rise to religious paintings, which constituted the main type of painting at that time. There were also paintings of historical figures, which drew on literary works. Paintings of landscapes, flowers, and birds also took shape during this period of time.

隋唐时期社会经济、文化高度繁荣,绘画也随之呈现出全面繁荣的局面。山水画、花鸟画已发展成熟,宗教画达到了顶峰,人物画以表现贵族生活为主,并出现了具有时代特征的人物造型。而文人画的出现及其在后世的发展,极大地丰富了中国画的创作观念和表现方法。 
The Sui and Tang dynasties experienced a period of highly prosperous socio-economic and cultural development. Along with this, there also occurred a prosperous period of development in painting. Landscape and flower-bird styles of painting reached their maturity. Religious painting also reached its peak at this time. There also appeared a secular trend, with figure paintings depicting the life of aristocrats and paintings depicting people's characteristics at that time. The emergence of literati painting and its later further development greatly enriched the creative concept of Chinese painting and methods of depiction. 
 

画分三科 
The Three Categories of Chinese Painting 
中国画有“画分三科”的说法,人物、山水、花鸟,表面上是以题材分类,其实是用艺术表现一种观念和思想。所谓“画分三科”,即概括了宇宙和人生的三个方面:人物画所表现的是人类社会,人与人的关系;山水画所表现的是人与自然的关系,将人与自然融为一体;花鸟画则是表现大自然的各种生命,与人和谐相处。三者之合构成了自然万物的整体,相得益彰。 
Chinese painting consists of three categories, namely, figure painting, landscape painting, and flower-bird painting. On the surface, they are classified by topic, while in fact they present a form of conceptualization and thought through art. The so-called "three categories of painting" include three aspects of the universe and human life: figure painting depicts human society and interpersonal relationships; landscape painting expresses the relationship between man and nature, combining the two into one; and flower-bird painting expresses the varieties of natural life and their existence in harmony with man. The combination of the three constitutes the whole multitude of things in universe, each bringing out the best in each other and complementing each other. 
 

人物画是以人物形象为主体的绘画之通称。我国的人物画,历史悠久。据记载,商、周时期,已经有壁画。东晋时的顾恺之专尚画人物画,在我国绘画史上第一个明确提出“以形写神”的主张。人物画力求人物个性刻画得逼真传神,气韵生动、形神兼备。其传神之法,常把对人物性格的表现,寓于环境、气氛、身段和动态的渲染之中。故中国画论上又称人物画为“传神”。历代著名人物画有东晋顾恺之的《洛神赋图》卷,唐代韩滉的《文苑图》,五代南唐顾闳中的《韩熙载夜宴图》。要画好人物画,除了继承传统外,还必须了解和研究人体的基本形体、比例、解剖结构,以及人体运动的变化规律,方能准确的塑造和表现人物的形和神。 
Gu Kaizhi in the Eastern Jin period specialized in figure painting. He was the first to put forward the idea of "expressing the spirit through form." In his figure painting, he was committed to the vivid depiction of individual character and a lively resonance, while giving ample consideration to both form and spirit. Through this method, individual character in his figure painting was vividly expressed through depiction of environment, atmosphere, posture, and motion.

描写山川自然景色为主体的山水画是专门的艺术学科,山水画在魏晋、南北朝已逐渐发展,但仍附属于人物画,作为背景的居多;隋唐始独立,如展子虔的设色山水,李思训的金碧山水,王维的水墨山水,王洽的泼墨山水等;五代、北宋山水画大兴,作者纷起,如荆浩、关仝、李成、董源、巨然、范宽、许道宁、燕文贵、宋迪、王诜、米芾、米友仁的水墨山水,王希孟、赵伯驹、赵伯骕的青绿山水,南北竞辉,形成南北宗两大派系,达到高峰。自唐代以来,每一时期,都有著名画家,专尚从事山水画的创作。尽管他们的身世、素养、学派、方法等不同,但是,都能够用过笔墨、色彩、技巧,灵活经营,认真描绘,使自然风光之美,欣然跃于纸上,其脉相同,雄伟壮观,气韵清逸。元代山水画趋向写意,以虚带实,侧重笔墨神韵。表现上讲究经营位置和表达意境。传统分法有水墨、青绿、金碧、没骨、浅绛、淡彩等形式。 
 

Landscape painting is a special area of study in art; it mainly depicts natural scenery. It developed during the Wei, Jin, and South-North periods. Flower-bird painting became an independent category of painting during the Tang dynasty. 
在魏晋南北朝之前,花鸟作为中国艺术的表现对象,一直是以图案纹饰的方式出现在陶器、铜器之上。花鸟画较多的是画一些禽鸟和动物,因为它们往往和神话有一定的联系,有的甚至是神话中的主角。如为王母捣药的玉兔,太阳中的金乌,月宫中的蟾蜍,以及代表四个方位的青龙、白虎、朱雀、玄武等。一般说花鸟画在唐代独立成科,属于花鸟范畴的鞍马在这一时期已经有了较高的艺术成就,现在所能见到的韩干的《照夜白》、韩滉的《五牛图》以及传为戴嵩的《半牛图》等,都表明了这一题材所具有的较高的艺术水准。而记载中曹霸、陈闳的鞍马,冯绍正的画鹰,薛稷的画鹤,韦偃的画龙,边鸾、滕昌佑、刁光胤的花鸟,孙位的画松竹,不仅表现了强大的阵容,而且各自都有杰作。如薛稷画鹤,杜甫有诗赞曰:“薛公十一鹤,皆写青田真。画色久欲尽,苍然犹出尘。低昂各有意,磊落似长人。”


“天人合一”的思想 

The Ideology of "Heaven and Man Are One" 
中国画在创作上重视构思,讲求意在笔先和形象思维,注重艺术形象的主客观统一。造型上不拘于表面的肖似,而讲求“妙在似与不似之间”和“不似之似”。中国画以其特有的笔墨技巧作为状物及传情达意的表现手段,以点、线、面的形式描绘对象的形貌、骨法、质地、光暗及情态神韵。这里的笔墨既是状物、传情的技巧,又是对象的载体,同时本身又是有意味的形式,其痕迹体现了中国书法的意趣,具有独立的审美价值。中国画在创作中强调书画同源,注重画家本人的人品及素养。在具体作品中讲求诗 、书、画、印的有机结合,并且通过在画面上题写诗文跋语,表达画家对社会、人生及艺术的认识,既起到了深化主题的作用,又是画面的有机组成部份。 
Chinese painting attaches importance to conception, and it is particular about forming the concept first before painting. It emphasizes the subjective and objective unity of the artistic image and does not pursue precise resemblance in form; instead it strives for "the ingenious effect that lies between resemblance and non-resemblance" and "resemblance in non-resemblance." Chinese painting uses unique brush and ink techniques to depict the object and express feeling, and by means of point, line, and surface depicts the shape, framework, texture, light, and the bearing of the object in the painting. The brush and ink serve not only as techniques to depict objects and to convey feelings, but also serve as carriers of the object of painting. At the same time they, themselves, are a form of connotation, displaying tasteful charm in Chinese calligraphy and possessing unique aesthetic value. Chinese painting emphasizes the fact that the painting and the calligraphy are homologous. Moreover, it pays attention to the character and accomplishment of the artist. In a particular piece of work, particular attention is given to the harmonic combination of poem, calligraphy, painting, and seal. Through writing the poem, preface, and postscript on a painting, the artist expresses his understanding of society, life and, art. These not only enrich the theme of the painting, but also form part of the composition. 
 

中国画在观察认识、形象塑造和表现手法上,体现了中华民族传统的哲学观念和审美观,在对客观事物的观察认识中,采取以大观小、小中见大的方法,并在活动中去观察和认识客观事物,甚至可以直接参与到事物中去,而不是做局外观,或局限在某个固定点上。它渗透着人们的社会意识,从而使绘画具有“千载寂寥,披图可鉴”的认识作用,又起到“恶以诫世,善以示后”的教育作用。即使山水、花鸟等纯自然的客观物象,在观察、认识和表现中,也自觉地与人的社会意识和审美情趣相联系,借景抒情,托物言志。
Chinese painting reflects the philosophical and aesthetic concepts of the Chinese in its observation, image creation, and expression. In its observation of reality, it adopts the method of seeing what is small from what is big, and from what is small to see what is big. It observes reality in real life or even directly becomes part of the reality, instead of just observing as an outsider or limiting itself to a particular point of view. Even when painting pure natural objects, such as landscapes, flowers, and birds, the artist may also link them with people's social consciousness and aesthetic interest, using the scenes to express feelings or express one's aspirations through depicting a particular object. 
 

国画不仅历史悠久,还是折射中国传统艺术的一面镜子,体现了中国传统文化“天人合一”的思想。
Traditional Chinese painting is not only time-honored, but also serves as a mirror to reflect China's traditional arts, demonstrating the Chinese traditional concept of "Heaven and Man are one."

 

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